Those who live in Brazil and other countries in Southern Hemisphere will start now to feel the effects of the most beautiful season of the year. During the spring, temperatures are more pleasant, air is wetter than in winter, new leaves sprout in the trees and flowers bloom, leaving a romantic spirit in the air and a beautiful landscape in gardens, fields and parks. This is also the moment to enjoy the great amount of fruits, legumes and green vegetables of the season, such as pineapple, papaya, acerola, pumpkin, aubergine, broccoli and cauliflower. Even animals display typical behaviors in this season. Many of them tend to awake from the hibernation period.
The season starts just after winter and finishes upon the summer arrival, when rainfalls get more intense. In this period, beautiful sunflowers, orchids, hydrangea, roses, violets and hibiscus, among others are blooming. Although spring is known as the flowers' season, this is a characteristic just in some regions of the planet. In Brazil, the flowering period occurs in several seasons, not only in spring, and varies according to the species.
In Brazil and other countries located in Southern Hemisphere, spring starts between September 22 and 23 and lasts up to December 21 or 22. In 2019, it has started on September 23, and will end on December 22.
On the other hand, in Northern Hemisphere, seasons occur in different periods. When it is spring in the Northern Hemisphere, it is autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. In Northern Hemisphere, it starts on March 20 and 21 and ends between June 22 and 23, when summer arrives.
Similar to other seasons of the year, springs occurs due to the Earth tilt during translation movement, in which the planet spins around the sun. Such movement is one of the causes of the seasons of the year. This is because, due to the Earth tilt relative to its orbital plan, solar rays reach the two hemispheres in different proportions. Thus, when one hemisphere receives more light and is warmer as it receives more solar rays, the other is receiving less intense rays, and this is why the seasons of the year do not occur concurrently in both sides.
In addition, there are also the solstice and equinox phenomena, which mark the beginning of the seasons of the year and occur twice a year in each hemisphere.
Solstice represents the moment when the Sun is its peak in North or in South. Such higher Sun declination relative to Ecuador Line causes a higher lighting in one of the hemispheres. This phenomenon occurs twice a year, in June and December. When the solar incidence is higher in one of the hemispheres, the summer solstice occurs. When the solar incidence is lower in one of the hemispheres, the winter solstice occurs. Summer solstice is characterized by having days longer than nights. In winter solstice nights are longer than days.
Equinox occurs when neither hemispheres is tilted relative to the Sun. Thus, solar rays reach directly the Ecuador Line, lighting both hemispheres equally. This phenomenon occurs twice a year, in March and September. Equinox occurrence marks the beginning of spring and autumn. Due to the same solar rays intensity in both hemispheres, days and nights are equally long: 12 hours each.
March equinox marks the beginning of autumn in Southern Hemisphere and spring in Northern Hemisphere (between March 20 and 21) and September equinox marks the beginning of spring in Southern Hemisphere and autumn in Northern Hemisphere (between September 22 and 23).
Season with high temperatures and days longer than nights, summer occurs after spring and before autumn. In this period, rainfalls increase and trees are green and full of fruits.
One of autumn's characteristics is the gradual decline in temperatures, since this is the season prior to winter. In this period, tree leaves feature a yellow tone and use to fall, indicating the season change. Autumn is the season occurring after summer.
In winter, temperatures are falling, and there is the occurrence of frosts and snowfalls in some places of Southern Hemisphere. This season features shorter days and longer nights due to the lower sun incidence. In this period, many animal species migrate to areas with higher temperatures. Winter occurs after autumn and before spring.
In this season, temperatures are mild and pleasant and there is an increase in rainfalls. Days begin to be longer and nights become shorter.